Turner 1999

Dangling Ends


The dangling end parameters were assembled in:

Serra, M.J. and Turner, D.H. (1995) Predicting Thermodynamic Properties of RNA. Methods Enzymol., 259, 242-261.

The optical melting experiments for dangling ends were reported in:

1.       Freier, S.M., Burger, B.J., Alkema, D., Neilson, T. and Turner, D.H. (1983) Effects of 3' dangling end stacking on the stability of GGCC and CCGG double helices. Biochemistry, 22, 6198-6206.

2.       Petersheim, M. and Turner, D.H. (1983) Base-stacking and base-pairing contributions to helix stability: thermodynamics of double-helix formation with CCGG, CCGGp, CCGGAp, ACCGGp, CCGGUp, and ACCGGUp. Biochemistry, 22, 256-263.

3.       Freier, S.M., Alkema, D., Sinclair, A., Neilson, T. and Turner, D.H. (1985) Contributions of dangling end stacking and terminal base-pair formation to the stabilities of XGGCCp, XCCGGp, XGGCCYp, and XCCGGYp helixes. Biochemistry, 24, 4533-4539.

4.       Freier, S.M., Kierzek, R., Caruthers, M.H., Neilson, T. and Turner, D.H. (1986) Free energy contributions of G.U and other terminal mismatches to helix stability. Biochemistry, 25, 3209-3223.

5.       Freier, S.M., Sugimoto, N., Sinclair, A., Alkema, D., Neilson, T., Kierzek, R., Caruthers, M.H. and Turner, D.H. (1986) Stability of XGCGCp, GCGCYp, and XGCGCYp helixes: an empirical estimate of the energetics of hydrogen bonds in nucleic acids. Biochemistry, 25, 3214-3219.

6.       Sugimoto, N., Kierzek, R. and Turner, D.H. (1987) Sequence dependence for the energetics of dangling ends and terminal base pairs in ribonucleic acid. Biochemistry, 26, 4554-4558.

7.       Turner, D.H., Sugimoto, N. and Freier, S.M. (1988) RNA structure prediction. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem., 17, 167-192.

8.       Longfellow, C.E., Kierzek, R. and Turner, D.H. (1990) Thermodynamic and spectroscopic study of bulge loops in oligoribonucleotides. Biochemistry, 29, 278-285.